SMARTTEACHING: CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS

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e-Lectures and Worksheets

Online Lectures: Chemistry.

Grade 9 - Chemistry:

e-Lecture: Reactions of Metals (1).

Group 1 elements known as the alkaline metals react readily with oxygen with the formation of metal oxides.

(Click on the e-lecture below).


Grade 9 - Chemistry:  

e-Lecture: Reactions of Metals (2).

Group 1 and 2 metals react with oxygen with the formation of metal oxides.

Metal oxides react with water with the formation of metal hydroxides.

A few transition metals react with oxygen with the formation of metal oxides, but these oxides do not react with water.

(Click on the e-lecture below).

 

Grade 9 - Chemistry:  

e-Lecture: Reactions of Metals (3).

The relative reactivity of metals are arranged in a reactivity series.

(Click on the e-lecture below).

 

Grade 10 / 11 - Chemistry:

e-Lecture: Atomic and Molecular Mass.

The atomic of atoms, molecular of molecules and formula mass of formula-units (metal salts) can be determined by adding the atomic masses of different atoms as indicated in the chemical formula of the substance.

Atomic mass values are available form the Periodic Table.

(Click on the e-lecture below).



Grade 10 / 11 - Chemistry:

e-Lecture: The Mole and Avogadro's Constant.

The mole (n) is a concept used in chemistry to indicate amount of a chemical substance and can be determine from the mass of a substance as well as the atomic-, molecular- and formula mass of a substance.

The number of particles (atoms, molecules or formula units) in a number of moles of a substance can be determined by multiplying the number of moles with Avogadro's constant.

(Click on the e-lecture below).

 

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 The Atom:

Composed of three sub-atomic particles.

Proton - positively charged particle located in the nucleus of the atom.

Neutron - electrical neutral particle located in the nucleus of the atom.

Electron - negatively charged particle occupy space around the nucleus


Mass of Proton:

1.6726219 × 10 -27 kg

Mass of Electron:

9.10938356 × 10−31 kg

Mass of Neutron:

1.6726219 × 10-27 kg


Chemical Bonds:

Non-polar Covalent Bond:

This chemical bond develops between two identical non-metal atoms as a result of equal sharing of electrons.



Polar Covalent Bond:

This chemical bond develops between two non-identical non-metal atoms as a result of unequal sharing of electrons.


Ionic Bond:

This chemical bond develops between a metal cation and non-metal anion as a result of electron transfer from the metal to the non-metal.

 Crystal structures:

Ionic structure composed of sodium cations and chloride anions.



Covalent Network Structure:

Diamond composed of carbon atoms.


Graphite composed of carbon atoms.


Di-atomic Molecules:

Certain elements exists in nature as stable di-atomic molecules (2 atoms form a stable unit).

Hydrogen:



Nitrogen:



Oxygen:




Fluorine:



Chlorine:



Bromine:




Iodine:



Organic Chemistry:

Organic chemistry is the chemistry of the element carbon.

Alkanes are an organic group composed of hydrogen and hydrogen atoms with only single bonds (saturated).  Methane is the smallest alkane.



Alkenes are an organic group composed of hydrogen and hydrogen atoms with at least one double bond (unsaturated).  Methane is the smallest alkane. Ethene is the smallest alkene.


Alkynes are an organic group composed of hydrogen and hydrogen atoms with at least one tripple bond (unsaturated).  But-2-yne is an alkyne composed of 4 carbon atoms with the triple located between C-2 and C-3.




Force:

Force is the capacity to do work or cause physical change transfer energy.

Symbol: F

Unit: Newton (N)

Vector (magnitude and direction)



 Gravitational Acceleration:

Falling object will accelerate downwards at a constant rate of 9,8 m/s2.

The velocity of the falling object increases by 9,8 m/s every second.

(g = 9,8 m/s2)

 

Linear Momentum:

Symbol: p

Unit: kg.m/s

Vector

 

Transverse Waves:

Moving water is an example of transverse waves.


Longitudinal Waves:

Sound performs a longitudinal wave by disturbing air particles.

 

Electrochemical Cells:

Conversion of Chemical Energy into Electrical Energy.


Electrolytic Cells:

Conversion of Electrical Energy into Chemical Energy.

 


Periodic Table:

Arrangement of elements according to increasing Atomic Numbers.