SMARTTEACHING: CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS

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e-Lectures and Worksheets

How it Works!

 

  • The Direct-Science Software consists of lectures and worksheets for Chemistry and Physics.

  • Each lecture is composed of numerous dynamic, colourful, explanatory slide shows. 

  • With each click information regarding various topics of the lecture will be presented on the screen of your computer.

  • Linked to the lectures of each grade are worksheets with questions. 

  • Worksheets are downloaded with the e-lectures and can be printed from your computer (click on a worksheet to open it - right click on mouse followed by choosing the print option).

  • Information from the lecture is used to answer questions on the worksheet.

  • When the end of each slide is reached the information on the screen should be used to answer the related questions in the worksheet.  (First answer the questions before continue to the following slide).

  • Examination questions and answers are also included.

  • Download and activate the e-lectures for a trial period of 10 days or order from Direct-Science.

 

Click through lectures and use information on each slide to answer questions on the worksheet.

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 The Atom:

Composed of three sub-atomic particles.

Proton - positively charged particle located in the nucleus of the atom.

Neutron - electrical neutral particle located in the nucleus of the atom.

Electron - negatively charged particle occupy space around the nucleus


Mass of Proton:

1.6726219 × 10 -27 kg

Mass of Electron:

9.10938356 × 10−31 kg

Mass of Neutron:

1.6726219 × 10-27 kg


Chemical Bonds:

Non-polar Covalent Bond:

This chemical bond develops between two identical non-metal atoms as a result of equal sharing of electrons.



Polar Covalent Bond:

This chemical bond develops between two non-identical non-metal atoms as a result of unequal sharing of electrons.


Ionic Bond:

This chemical bond develops between a metal cation and non-metal anion as a result of electron transfer from the metal to the non-metal.

 Crystal structures:

Ionic structure composed of sodium cations and chloride anions.



Covalent Network Structure:

Diamond composed of carbon atoms.


Graphite composed of carbon atoms.


Di-atomic Molecules:

Certain elements exists in nature as stable di-atomic molecules (2 atoms form a stable unit).

Hydrogen:



Nitrogen:



Oxygen:




Fluorine:



Chlorine:



Bromine:




Iodine:



Organic Chemistry:

Organic chemistry is the chemistry of the element carbon.

Alkanes are an organic group composed of hydrogen and hydrogen atoms with only single bonds (saturated).  Methane is the smallest alkane.



Alkenes are an organic group composed of hydrogen and hydrogen atoms with at least one double bond (unsaturated).  Methane is the smallest alkane. Ethene is the smallest alkene.


Alkynes are an organic group composed of hydrogen and hydrogen atoms with at least one tripple bond (unsaturated).  But-2-yne is an alkyne composed of 4 carbon atoms with the triple located between C-2 and C-3.




Force:

Force is the capacity to do work or cause physical change transfer energy.

Symbol: F

Unit: Newton (N)

Vector (magnitude and direction)



 Gravitational Acceleration:

Falling object will accelerate downwards at a constant rate of 9,8 m/s2.

The velocity of the falling object increases by 9,8 m/s every second.

(g = 9,8 m/s2)

 

Linear Momentum:

Symbol: p

Unit: kg.m/s

Vector

 

Transverse Waves:

Moving water is an example of transverse waves.


Longitudinal Waves:

Sound performs a longitudinal wave by disturbing air particles.

 

Electrochemical Cells:

Conversion of Chemical Energy into Electrical Energy.


Electrolytic Cells:

Conversion of Electrical Energy into Chemical Energy.

 


Periodic Table:

Arrangement of elements according to increasing Atomic Numbers.