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High School - Chemistry and Physics


Scroll down for e-Lectures, Science and Scientists, Scientific Research as well as Interesting Global Scientific Observations.


Introduction to Chemistry - The Atom:

The atom is composed of two sections - the central nucleus and surrounding electron cloud.

Protons and neutrons are located in the nucleus of the atom while electrons occupy the space surrounding the nucleus.

Watch the video below for a presentation on the the atom.

(The presentation can be controlled by clicking the play button).

A complete set of Chemistry and Physics lectures can be downloaded from the Index.


Science and Scientists:

Greatest Physicists in History:

Michael Faraday: Lived 1791 to 1867.

Michael Faraday is probably the greatest experimental physicist ever. By varying a magnetic field he produced electric current in a wire, and so discovered electromagnetic induction, the means by which nearly all electricity is generated by power plants today. He discovered electromagnetic rotation – the forerunner of the electric motor – and he discovered that diamagnetism is a property of all materials. His laws of electrolysis lie at the heart of electrochemistry, which he played a large part in founding. He invented the Faraday Cage, which prevents lightning damaging anything within it and prevents external interference affecting sensitive electric and electronic experiments. He discovered that magnetism and light are related by showing that a magnetic field rotates the plane of light polarization. He was the first person to liquefy gases, and he discovered the enormously important chemical compound benzene.

Isaac Newton: Lived 1643 to 1727.

Isaac Newton invented calculus, the mathematics of change, without which we could not understand the behavior of objects as tiny as electrons or as large as galaxies. His most famous work, Principia, is one of the most important scientific books ever written. In Principia Newton used mathematics to explain gravity and motion. Initially hardly anyone understood Newton’s new physics. When Newton walked past them one day, one student remarked to another:

Newton discovered the law of universal gravitation, proving that the moon orbits the earth for precisely the same reason that an apple falls from a tree. He formulated three laws of motion – Newton’s Laws – which lie at the heart of the science of movement. Furthermore, he proved that sunlight is made up of all of the colors of the rainbow and he built the world’s first working reflecting telescope.


Johannes Kepler: Lived 1571 to 1630.

Johannes Kepler broke the tradition of thousands of years of astronomy, discovering that the heavenly bodies follow elliptical paths. Kepler’s laws of planetary motion were an absolutely crucial breakthrough in our understanding of the universe. Kepler’s third law enabled Isaac Newton to establish the inverse square law of gravitation. Kepler himself discovered the inverse square law of light intensity. He discovered that our eyes invert images and our brains correct the upside down images. He was the first person to prove how logarithms work, allowing physical scientists to use these fundamental tools free of anxiety.

Galileo Galilei: Lived 1564 – 1642.

Galileo was the first person to study the sky with a telescope. He was the first person to discover moons orbiting another planet, discovering Jupiter’s four largest moons. He discovered that Venus has phases like our moon – the first practical rather than mathematical evidence that the sun is at the center of the solar system. He discovered the Law of the Pendulum. He discovered that gravity accelerates all things equally, regardless of mass, and that acceleration of objects by gravity is proportional to the square of the time they have been falling. He stated the principle of inertia – in other words he discovered Newton’s First Law of Motion.

Archimedes: Lived c. 287 BC – 212 BC.

The greatest scientist of ancient times, Archimedes pushed mathematics, physics, and engineering to new heights. He created the physical sciences of mechanics and hydrostatics, discovered the laws of levers and pulleys, and discovered one of the most important concepts in physics – the center of gravity. He applied advanced mathematics to the physical world and his surviving works inspired both Galileo Galilei and Isaac Newton to investigate the laws of motion.

Anaximander: Lived c. 610 BC – c. 546 BC.

Anaximander is responsible for the idea  that the earth needs nothing below it to support it - the earth floats in the center of infinity, held in position because it is an equal distance from other parts of the universe. He transformed the way people were thinking of the universe and introduced the idea  of force of attraction between the earth, planets and stars in the heavens.

Historic Female Scientists:

Mary Somerville (1780 – 1872):

Mary experimented on magnetism and produced a series of writings on astronomy, chemistry, physics and mathematics. She translated astronomer Pierre-Simon Laplace’s The Mechanism of the Heavens into English, and it was used as a textbook for much of the next century.

Mary Anning (1799 – 1847):

Anning had a long career as a fossil hunter. In addition to ichthyosaurs, she found long-necked plesiosaurs, a pterodactyl and hundreds, possibly thousands, of other fossils that helped scientists to draw a picture of the marine world 200 million to 140 million years ago during the Jurassic.

                           Lise Meitner (1878 – 1968):

After it was discovered that uranium atoms could split when bombarded with neutrons, Lise calculated the energy released in the reaction and named the phenomenon “nuclear fission”.

Barbara McClintock (1902 – 1992):

She determined that genes could move within and between chromosomes Aas confirmed during 1970s and early 1980s with “jumping genes” found in microorganisms, insects and even humans.

Irène Curie-Joliot (1897 – 1956):

Discovered artificial radioactivity by bombarding aluminum, boron and magnesium with alpha particles to produce isotopes of nitrogen, phosphorus, silicon and aluminum.

Rosalind Franklin (1920 – 1958):

Made X-ray images of DNA which led to resolve the structure of DNA as a double helix.


Lattice theory of crystals:

 Auguste Bravais, a French physicist and mineralogist, best remembered for his work on the lattice theory of crystals. In 1850, he showed that crystals could be divided into 14 unit cells for which: (a) the unit cell is the simplest repeating unit in the crystal; (b) opposite faces of a unit cell are parallel; and (c) the edge of the unit cell connects equivalent points. These unit cells fall into seven geometrical categories, which differ in their relative edge lengths and internal angles.

Electric Current:

André-Marie Ampère made the revolutionary discovery that a wire carrying electric current can attract or repel another wire next to it that’s also carrying electric current. The attraction is magnetic, but no magnets are necessary for the effect to be seen. He went on to formulate Ampere’s Law of electromagnetism and produced the best definition of electric current of his time.

Ampère also proposed the existence of a particle we now recognize as the electron, discovered the chemical element fluorine, and he grouped elements by their properties over half a century before Dmitri Mendeleev produced his periodic table.

The SI unit of electric current, the ampere, is named in his honor.

William Harvey:

English physician who discovered the true nature of the circulation of the blood and of the function of the heart as a pump.

Born 1 Apr 1578; died 31657  at age 79.

Graphs of motion:

Velocity - time graph.

Important information regarding the motion of an object can be obtained by constructing a graph of the objects motion.  The slope of a velocity - time graph reflects the acceleration of the object while the area under the graph indicates the displacement of the object during the period of motion.

Atomic Structure - Bohr Model:

This model of Bohr’s idea of the atomic structure shows how it works.

The nucleus lies in the center of the model and is made up of a certain number of protons and neutrons. Each of the outer layers is made up of a certain amount of electrons. The limit to how many electrons can be in each electron shell is shown in the model. This model helps not only with the theoretical appearance of an atom, but also how different elements combine.

Avogadro's Hypothesis:

Avogadro's hypothesis states that two samples of gas of equal volume, at the same temperature and pressure, contain the same number of molecules.

Avogadro's hypothesis allows chemists to predict the behavior of ideal gasses. Amedeo Avogadro made the hypothesis in 1811 in an essay submitted to Journal de Physique. Elaborating on this hypothesis, he asserted the volume of a gas is not dependent on the size or mass of the molecules of the gas.

Universal Gravitation:

Newton's law of universal gravitation states that a particle attracts every other particle in the universe using a force that is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.


Electrostatic force, which is also called the Coulomb force or Coulomb interaction, is defined as the attraction or repulsion of different particles and materials based on their electrical charges.

Electrostatic force is one of the most basic forms of forces used in the physical sciences, and was discovered by a French physicist named Charles-Augustin de Coulomb in the 1700s. Coulomb discovered electrostatic force after undertaking an experiment, and used the concept of electrostatic force to describe the interaction of particles and molecules in a given space.This is a spike of mineral novelty that is so rapid - most of it in the last 200 years, compared to the 4.5-billion-year history of Earth.



Electromagnetism is the branch of physics that deals with electricity and magnetism and the interaction between them. It was first discovered in the 19th century and has extensive application in today's world of physics.

Electromagnetism is basically the science of electromagnetic fields. An electromagnetic field is the field produced by objects that are charged electrically. Radio waves, infrared waves, Ultraviolet waves, and x-rays are all electromagnetic fields in a certain range of frequency. Electricity is produced by the changing of magnetic field. The phenomenon is also called "electromagnetic induction." Similarly the magnetic field is produced by motion of electric charges.


Alessandro Volta was an Italian physicist credited for the invention of the electric battery in 1800. He also made discoveries in electrostatics, meteorology and pneumatics. The word "volt," named after Volta, is a measurement of electricity.

Alessandro Volta's most notable invention was an electrical device called the voltaic pile. It was made of alternating discs of zinc and copper, with each pair separated by a brine-soaked cloth. The device produced a steady stream of electricity when a wire was attached to either end of the disk, making it the first direct-current battery.

Dalton and his conclusions regarding the Atom:

Ernest Rutherford discovered the nucleus of the atom in 19


Introduction to Chemistry - Aufbau Diagram and Electron Structure:

The atom is composed of three sub-atomic particle, protons, neutrons and electrons.

The electrons are located outside the nucleus and surround the nucleus in,

* fixed distanced from the nucleus known as energy levels and

* occupy space in the energy levels described as orbital.

Watch the video below for a presentation on the Aufbau diagram indicating the relative positions of electrons in energy levels.

(The presentation can be controlled by clicking the play button).

A complete set of Chemistry and Physics lectures can be downloaded from the Index.

Scientific Research:

The Contact Process (1831):

This process was invented in 1831 by the British Vinegar Merchant Peregrine Phillips. The contact process produces sulfuric trioxide and is far more of an economical process for producing concentrated sulfuric acids than any other processes.

The Ostwald Process (1902):

The Ostwald process was developed by a man named Wilhelm Ostwald, after years of researching. It was created in 1902, patented in 1902, he then later was awarded the Nobel-peace prize for his work in 1909.
This process was and still is a very important process because it is any easy way to create nitric acid in only two steps. Nitric acid, being used in so many things we don't really think about such as fertilizer and explosives. So the process the Wilhelm created is still being used today because it is reliable and the easiest way to create nitric acid for the high demand it is needed for.

The Haber - Bosch Process (1918):

Haber-Bosch process, also called Haber ammonia process, or synthetic ammonia process,  method of directly synthesizing ammonia from hydrogen and nitrogen, developed by the German physical chemist Fritz Haber. He received the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1918 for this method, which made the manufacture of ammonia economically feasible. The method was translated into a large-scale process using a catalyst and high-pressure methods by Carl Bosch an industrial chemist.

Watch this video on the basics and application of the Haber Process.

Diversity of Water to Illustrate Various Scientific Principles (2016):

Water can be used to illustrate various scientific principles such as:

i.) Electrolysis

ii.) Ideal Gas Law

iv.) Diffusion

v.) Migration

vi.) Chromatography

vii.) Effect of Atmospheric Pressure

viii.) Polarity

ix.) Refraction

x.) ''Elephant Toothpaste"

Watch the following video.

Einstein's Miracle Year (1905):

During 1905 Einstein proposed and solved four major "scientific issues".

i.) Light has a dual nature - it is a wave, but also has a particle nature as shown with the photo-electric effect - photons

ii.) Atoms do exist

iii.) Relativity

iv.) Relation between mass and energy: E =mc2.

Watch this video on the four discoveries of Einstein.

The Sticky Force applied by the Tongue of a Frog on its Prey (2017):

Frogs stick and unstick their tongue to prey better than any commercial adhesive we've been able to create, and are capable of dragging insects back into their mouths at a high acceleration rate.

Watch this video of applied physics in a biological system.

Visible Chemical Reactions (2017):

During a chemical reaction certain substances known as reactants combine with each other with the formation of new substances known as products.  These chemical reactions take place at certain optimum and unique temperature- and pressure conditions and the detail are mostly not visible.  The video below presents a few "Beautiful Chemical Reactions". 

Strongest Biological Material on Earth  (2017):

The strongest biological material is actually a snail’s tooth.

Limpets is a group of aquatic snails living their lives inching along rocks, scraping off algae for food. Limpet teeth have recently been tested and found to be the hardest biological material in the world.

These teeth aren’t like the teeth we humans have. They are protein-mineral composites that cover the snail’s tongue (called a radula). These structures have to be sturdy because they are essentially being raked across rocks all day as the snail uses them to free up algae to eat. The key to its strength,  is the tightly packed mineral fibers consisting of an iron-based substance called goethite. These goethite fibers are interlaced with a protein scaffolding in the same way carbon fiber can be combined with plastics to increase their strength.

Compared to man-made materials, limpet teeth are almost as good as the strongest carbon fiber composites. Taking what have been learned from the structure of limpet teeth could help make the composites used in body armor and aircraft hulls more durable and lighter.


Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen - X-Rays (1873):

Wilhelm Roentgen, a German professor of physics, was the first person to discover electromagnetic radiation in a wavelength range commonly known as X-rays today. Although, many people had observed the effects of X-ray beams before, but Roentgen was the first one to study them systematically. To highlight the unknown nature of his discovery, he called them X-rays though they are still known as Roentgen-rays as well. For his remarkable achievement he was honored with the first he first Nobel Prize in Physics in 1901.

Search for New Particles in the Atom - 5 New Sub-atomic Particles Identified (2017):

It is known that the atom is composed of three sub-atomic particles: protons, electrons ans neutrons.

The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), is the most powerful particle accelerator ever built. It features a 27-kilometre (16-mile) ring made of superconducting magnets and accelerating structures built to boost the energy of particles in the chamber.

In the accelerator, two high-energy particle beams are forced to collide from opposite directions at speeds close to the speed of light.

The energy densities that are created when these collisions occur cause ordinary matter to melt into its constituent parts - quarks and gluons. This allows scientists to interrogate the basic constituents of matter - the fundamental particles of the Standard Model.

More than 10,000 scientists and engineers are currently working together to help us learn about the fundamental properties of physics using the LHC.

Five new particles in the atom have been identified.

The Speed of Light (1676):

French physicist Hippolyte Fizeau is credited with making the first non-astronomical measurement, in 1849, using a method that involved sending light through a rotating toothed wheel then reflecting it back with a mirror located a significant distance away.

One of the first precise calculations of light’s velocity was made in the 1920s by American physicist Albert Michelson, who carried out his research in the mountains of Southern California using an eight-sided rotating mirror apparatus.

In 1983, an international commission on weights and measures set the speed of light in a vacuum at the calculation we use today: 299,792,458 meters per second (186,282 miles per second)—a speed that could circle the equator 7.5 times in a single second.

This Calcium Isotope Is So Rare, It Costs $500,000 for Just 2 Gram (2017):

If you're looking for a really dumb thing to spend your money on, look no further than calcium-48, an extremely rare isotope of calcium that carries such an astronomical pricetag.

This substance is so scarce, it makes up just 0.187 percent of naturally occurring calcium on Earth, and in order to be isolated from other forms of calcium, it has to be separated, atom by atom, in a massive magnetic separating machine.

New Minerals on the Earth (2017):

Scientists have identified a sudden explosion of mineral diversity on the surface of our planet that would not exist if it weren't for humans, adding weight to the argument that we're living in a new geological epoch - the Anthropocene.

This is a spike of mineral novelty that is so rapid - most of it in the last 200 years, compared to the 4.5-billion-year history of Earth.

After 100 Years of Debate, Hitting Absolute Zero Has Been Declared Mathematically Impossible (2017):

After more than 100 years of debate featuring the likes of Einstein himself, physicists have finally offered up mathematical proof of the third law of thermodynamics, which states that a temperature of absolute zero cannot be physically achieved because it's impossible for the entropy (or disorder) of a system to hit zero.

Alexander Graham Bell's Prediction About the Future Was Eerily Accurate (1917):

Alexander Graham Bell made his name as the inventor of the world's first practical telephone, but his genius wasn't just limited to revolutionary inventions. He not only predicted today's looming energy crisis - he also offered up a solution complete with solar panels and biofuel.

Turns out, in a 1917 article written for National Geographic magazine, Bell made an eerily accurate prediction about our unbridled use of fossil fuels, and later speculated that Earth would become a "hot-house".

Marie Curie - Discovery of Polonium, Radium and X-rays - Radioactivity (1903):

Born on November 7, 1867, in Warsaw, Poland, Marie Curie became the first woman to win a Nobel Prize and the only woman to win the award in two different fields (physics and chemistry). Curie's efforts, with her husband Pierre Curie, led to the discovery of polonium and radium and, after Pierre's death, the further development of X-rays. She died on July 4, 1934.


Universal and Global Science:

Exploration Vehicle Nautilus - research vessel:

Ocean Research:

Vancouver Aquarium:

The Vancouver Aquarium is a public aquarium, and non-profit organisation dedicated to ocean science and the conservation and rehabilitation of marine animals.


If you don't love octopuses, we don't understand what's wrong with you.

Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute:

Incredible Scientific Facts:

10 Strangest Elements

The Periodic Table of Elements currently hosts 118 chemical elements, each one with its own unique properties and principles.

Elements are the building blocks of nearly everything we know and use in this world.

From the air we breathe, the medications we take and the electronics we use, elements are the fundamental building blocks of the universe.

However, out of all 118, there are some elements that possess almost magical properties.

Microscopic Time-Lapse: See the Crazy Chemistry of a Reacting Metal:

This "Walking" Fish Has Scientists Stumped:

Stunning photographs taken under a microscope:

110 million-year-old dinosaur fossil so well preserved it looks like a STATUE:  

The fossil was found in a mine in northern Alberta, Canada in 2011, and will now go on display in Ottowa.

Paleontologists believe the dinosaur lived in Canada 110 million-years-ago.  It featured two 20-inch spikes which protruded from its shoulders and used scaly armour to defend itself.

Pendulum as Kinetic Art:

Watch this incredible wave formation produced from the movement of pendulums.

How small is an atom:

Atoms are rather strange. In many ways, they are beyond the realm of our every day experiences.

This is a little perplexing, as atoms make up, well, everything. In fact, centuries ago, we thought that the foundation of everything in our universe was atoms.

Now, we know that atoms are built from even smaller particles.

Watch this video on the size of an atom.

The Hidden Life in Pond Water:

We don't need to dive into the deep ocean to find the most unusual lifeforms. This short clip is a journey into a bizarre world of microscopic inhabitants of pond water.

You will see water fleas, bryozoans, water mites, mayfly nymphs, ostracods, and, of course, hydras. They jump, crawl, and float in a completely alien environment filled with mesmerizing algae and bushes of ciliates on stalks

Biggest Scientific Discoveries in the History of Mankind:

It is very difficult (if not impossible) to rank the importance of the discoveries we have made, but one thing is for sure – some of them have literally changed our life.

From penicillin and the screw pump to X-rays and electricity, here are 25 Biggest Scientific Discoveries in History of Mankind.

Watch the video below:

The Biggest Stars in the Universe

- How big is the Earth relative to other Stars:

The earth, planet and stars are moving, all kept in their distinctive positions - how big is the earth relative to other stars in the Universe?

Watch the video below.

Stunning Carbon Chemistry - Graphene:

Graphene is a new 2D material which was isolated in 2004. It was discovered after scientists at The University of Manchester separated one atomic layer of graphite using simple sticky tape.

Watch the video below.

Breathtaking ultra-HD video of flare on the sun:

On July 19, 2012 a medium size flare occurred on the sun that was simply amazing.

At Last, Video Confirmation That Snowflakes Aren't Always Perfectly Unique:

Snowflakes form in clouds in the atmosphere, when water vapour cools, and individual water molecules begin to stick to one another in frigid air, often starting around a particle in the air, like a piece of dust.

When they do this, they assemble in a hexagon shape, due to bonds being made between the hydrogen and oxygen atoms of each H2O molecule.

But, are snowflakes always perfectly unique?


Life-Changing Science Discovery:

The Copernicum System

In 1543, while on his deathbed, Polish astronomer Nicholas Copernicus published his theory that the Sun is a motionless body at the center of the solar system, with the planets revolving around it. Before the Copernicum system was introduced, astronomers believed the Earth was at the center of the universe.

Life-Changing Science Discovery:


Isaac Newton, an English mathematician and physicist, is considered the greatest scientist of all time. Among his many discoveries, the most important is probably his law of universal gravitation. In 1664, Newton figured out that gravity is the force that draws objects toward each other. It explained why things fall down and why the planets orbit around the Sun.

Life-Changing Science Discovery:


If electricity makes life easier for us, you can thank Michael Faraday. He made two big discoveries that changed our lives. In 1821, he discovered that when a wire carrying an electric current is placed next to a single magnetic pole, the wire will rotate. This led to the development of the electric motor. Ten years later, he became the first person to produce an electric current by moving a wire through a magnetic field. Faraday's experiment created the first generator, the forerunner of the huge generators that produce our electricity.

Life-Changing Science Discovery:

Fighting Bacteria

Before French chemist Louis Pasteur began experimenting with bacteria in the 1860s, people did not know what caused disease. He not only discovered that disease came from microorganisms, but he also realized that bacteria could be killed by heat and disinfectant. This idea caused doctors to wash their hands and sterilize their instruments, which has saved millions of lives.

Life-Changing Science Discovery:


Antibiotics are powerful drugs that kill dangerous bacteria in our bodies that make us sick. In 1928, Alexander Fleming discovered the first antibiotic, penicillin, which he grew in his lab using mold and fungi. Without antibiotics, infections like strep throat could be deadly.

Life-Changing Science Discovery:

Periodic Table

The Periodic Table is based on the 1869 Periodic Law proposed by Russian chemist Dmitry Mendeleev. He had noticed that, when arranged by atomic weight, the chemical elements lined up to form groups with similar properties. He was able to use this to predict the existence of undiscovered elements and note errors in atomic weights. In 1913, Henry Moseley of England confirmed that the table could be made more accurate by arranging the elements by atomic number, which is the number of protons in an atom of the element.





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 The Atom:

Composed of three sub-atomic particles.

Proton - positively charged particle located in the nucleus of the atom.

Neutron - electrical neutral particle located in the nucleus of the atom.

Electron - negatively charged particle occupy space around the nucleus

Mass of Proton:

1.6726219 × 10 -27 kg

Mass of Electron:

9.10938356 × 10−31 kg

Mass of Neutron:

1.6726219 × 10-27 kg

Chemical Bonds:

Non-polar Covalent Bond:

This chemical bond develops between two identical non-metal atoms as a result of equal sharing of electrons.

Polar Covalent Bond:

This chemical bond develops between two non-identical non-metal atoms as a result of unequal sharing of electrons.

Ionic Bond:

This chemical bond develops between a metal cation and non-metal anion as a result of electron transfer from the metal to the non-metal.

 Crystal structures:

Ionic structure composed of sodium cations and chloride anions.

Covalent Network Structure:

Diamond composed of carbon atoms.

Graphite composed of carbon atoms.

Di-atomic Molecules:

Certain elements exists in nature as stable di-atomic molecules (2 atoms form a stable unit).








Organic Chemistry:

Organic chemistry is the chemistry of the element carbon.

Alkanes are an organic group composed of hydrogen and hydrogen atoms with only single bonds (saturated).  Methane is the smallest alkane.

Alkenes are an organic group composed of hydrogen and hydrogen atoms with at least one double bond (unsaturated).  Methane is the smallest alkane. Ethene is the smallest alkene.

Alkynes are an organic group composed of hydrogen and hydrogen atoms with at least one tripple bond (unsaturated).  But-2-yne is an alkyne composed of 4 carbon atoms with the triple located between C-2 and C-3.


Force is the capacity to do work or cause physical change transfer energy.

Symbol: F

Unit: Newton (N)

Vector (magnitude and direction)

 Gravitational Acceleration:

Falling object will accelerate downwards at a constant rate of 9,8 m/s2.

The velocity of the falling object increases by 9,8 m/s every second.

(g = 9,8 m/s2)


Linear Momentum:

Symbol: p

Unit: kg.m/s



Transverse Waves:

Moving water is an example of transverse waves.

Longitudinal Waves:

Sound performs a longitudinal wave by disturbing air particles.


Electrochemical Cells:

Conversion of Chemical Energy into Electrical Energy.

Electrolytic Cells:

Conversion of Electrical Energy into Chemical Energy.


Periodic Table:

Arrangement of elements according to increasing Atomic Numbers.