SMARTTEACHING: CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS

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Electronegativity:

The ability of an atom to attract electrons that are shared with another atom.


Atomic Radius:

The distance from the centre of an atoms nucleus to the outer energy level filled with electrons.


Covalent Bond:

Sharing of electrons between two non-metals with the formation of a bond between the atoms (of non-metals).


Polar Covalent Bond.

Unequal sharing of electrons between two different non-metal atoms. Atom with the highest electronegativity becomes slightly negative and atom with lowest electronegativity becomes slightly positive.


Non-polar Covalent Bond.

Equal sharing of electrons between atoms of two non-polar elements.

Electrons are equally shared between two identical non-metal atoms.


Ionic Bond.

Transfer of electrons from a metal atom to a non-metal atom. The metal atom becomes positively charged and non-metal atom becomes negatively charged. The two oppositely charged atoms (cation and anion) attract each other with the formation of an ionic bond.

Ionic Crystal Structure.

Sodium chloride is an example of a substance existing as a ionic crystal structure.  Sodium cations and chloride anions are kept together with ionic bonds in the crystal structure.


Giant Covalent Network.

Diamond is an example of a Giant Covalent Network - composed of carbon atoms strongly bonded by covalent bonds.



Giant Covalent Network.

Graphite is an example of a Giant Covalent Network - composed of carbon atoms strongly bonded by covalent bonds - exist in layers.


Ionic Crystal Structure.

Crystal structure produced when positive cations and negative anions attract each other by means of ionic bonds.


Sodium chloride is an example of a substance exhibiting an ionic crystal structure.


Force.

Force is the capacity to do work or cause physical change.

Symbol: F

Unit: N (Newton)

Vector quantity: magnitude and direction.

 

Acceleration:

The rate at which velocity changes.

Vector quantity.

Symbol: a

Unit: m/s2


Proton.

Positively charged sub-atomic particle of an atom located in the nucleus of the atom.



Electron.

Negatively charged sub-atomic particle of an atom located in energy levels surrounding the nucleus of an atom.


Neutron.

Neutral sub-atomic particle of an atom located in the nucleus of the atom.


Organic Chemistry.

The chemistry of the element carbon.


Alkanes.

Saturated carbon-hydrogen compounds with methane the smallest substance.



Alkenes.

Unsaturated carbon-hydrogen compounds with at least one double bond between two carbon atoms.

Ethene is the smallest alkene.


Alkynes.

Unsaturated carbon-hydrogen atoms with at least one triple bond between two carbon atoms.

2-Butyne has 4 carbon atoms and one triple bond.


Di-atomic Elements.

Hydrogen



Nitrogen


Oxygen


Fluorine



Chlorine


Bromine


Iodine





 The Atom:

Composed of three sub-atomic particles.

Proton - positively charged particle located in the nucleus of the atom.

Neutron - electrical neutral particle located in the nucleus of the atom.

Electron - negatively charged particle occupy space around the nucleus


Mass of Proton:

1.6726219 × 10 -27 kg

Mass of Electron:

9.10938356 × 10−31 kg

Mass of Neutron:

1.6726219 × 10-27 kg


Chemical Bonds:

Non-polar Covalent Bond:

This chemical bond develops between two identical non-metal atoms as a result of equal sharing of electrons.



Polar Covalent Bond:

This chemical bond develops between two non-identical non-metal atoms as a result of unequal sharing of electrons.


Ionic Bond:

This chemical bond develops between a metal cation and non-metal anion as a result of electron transfer from the metal to the non-metal.

 Crystal structures:

Ionic structure composed of sodium cations and chloride anions.



Covalent Network Structure:

Diamond composed of carbon atoms.


Graphite composed of carbon atoms.


Di-atomic Molecules:

Certain elements exists in nature as stable di-atomic molecules (2 atoms form a stable unit).

Hydrogen:



Nitrogen:



Oxygen:




Fluorine:



Chlorine:



Bromine:




Iodine:



Organic Chemistry:

Organic chemistry is the chemistry of the element carbon.

Alkanes are an organic group composed of hydrogen and hydrogen atoms with only single bonds (saturated).  Methane is the smallest alkane.



Alkenes are an organic group composed of hydrogen and hydrogen atoms with at least one double bond (unsaturated).  Methane is the smallest alkane. Ethene is the smallest alkene.


Alkynes are an organic group composed of hydrogen and hydrogen atoms with at least one tripple bond (unsaturated).  But-2-yne is an alkyne composed of 4 carbon atoms with the triple located between C-2 and C-3.




Force:

Force is the capacity to do work or cause physical change transfer energy.

Symbol: F

Unit: Newton (N)

Vector (magnitude and direction)



 Gravitational Acceleration:

Falling object will accelerate downwards at a constant rate of 9,8 m/s2.

The velocity of the falling object increases by 9,8 m/s every second.

(g = 9,8 m/s2)

 

Linear Momentum:

Symbol: p

Unit: kg.m/s

Vector

 

Transverse Waves:

Moving water is an example of transverse waves.


Longitudinal Waves:

Sound performs a longitudinal wave by disturbing air particles.

 

Electrochemical Cells:

Conversion of Chemical Energy into Electrical Energy.


Electrolytic Cells:

Conversion of Electrical Energy into Chemical Energy.

 


Periodic Table:

Arrangement of elements according to increasing Atomic Numbers.